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In order to finalise a block on the beacon chain, a super-majority of the stake held by validators has to cast a vote for it. If a large number of validators is offline, or behind a network partition, then it may become impossible to get this super-majority. This reduction takes place over a relatively long period of time, around 18 days, to allow time for the network to come back together if possible.
Eventually, however, the stakes held by non-participating validators become low enough that majority stake voting is again possible, and the blockchain can resume making progress in finalising blocks. Note that this behaviour with respect to liveness gives users and applications the most choice: during periods when the chain is not finalising blocks, individual applications can decide on whether to use it or not, based on their own criteria.
If the chain just stops, it takes away this flexibility. Thanks to Danny Ryan for this insight. We are striving to deliver this in Ethereum 2. Security To utilize crypto and design techniques that allow for a large participation of validators in total and per unit time.
Almost a third of the faces are frowny, but they do not dominate any subset. In Ethereum 2. The advantages of having a large number of available validators and large committees are several. First, a large validator pool allows more opportunity for decentralisation and therefore diversity of participants, which makes collusion less likely and more difficult. Nonetheless, the threat model assumes that an attacker could potentially end up controlling up to a third of all the validators.
Second, if something that violates the protocol occurs — perhaps finalising two blocks at the same height — it means that many validators must have disobeyed the rules by voting for two blocks. This behaviour is detectable and the misbehaving group will be punished by having their stakes wiped out.
The third reason is mathematical. If we assume our total pool of validators has up to a third dishonest validators, then, the larger the committees we select from that pool, the less likely it becomes that any single committee will have a majority of dishonest members. To illustrate: say we have validators, of which are dishonest. If I randomly select a committee with one member, then there is a If I randomly select a committee of three members, there is a With the chosen minimum committee size of , selected from a pool of several thousand validators, there is less than a one-in-a-trillion chance of this happening, even if the attacker manages to control a third of the whole validator pool.
Achieving this design goal enables the widespread use of validator committees within the protocol: basically every protocol action is voted on by committees of randomly selected set of members. These committees are constantly shuffled, in some cases as frequently as every seconds. A cryptographic innovation that has made this possible is the use of BLS aggregate signatures. Basically, committee members can individually sign-off on decisions, and these individual signatures can be combined into a single signature that is easy to verify.
Without this capability, the time taken to validate signatures from individual committee members would severely limit the number of validators that could participate in any decision. Simplicity To minimize complexity, even at the cost of some losses in efficiency.
Complexity is the enemy of security. To ensure that Ethereum 2. It must be possible to analyse its behaviours to root out the corner cases and perverse incentives. We should be able to perform formal verification as much as possible.
But, simplicity is not just about lines of code, it is primarily about the concepts we are implementing. Any blockchain technology already sits at the intersection of three notoriously tricky disciplines: distributed systems, cryptography and game theory. Even in a relatively straightforward cryptoeconomic system such as Ethereum 1. Gas Token is an example of this: a mechanism designed to reduce the amount of data stored in the blockchain state has resulted in a large increase in data stored.
The simpler our protocol, the better we can analyse and defend against oddities like this. The blockchain world is alive with innovation. By comparison, the design of Ethereum 2. The conservatism is deliberate: the design must be as simple as it can be. As an example, there are similarities between the design of Polkadot and the design of Ethereum 2. Which is unsurprising as Gavin Wood did some of the early thinking around Ethereum sharding.
Both are sharded protocols: in Polkadot each shard can run a different protocol, whereas in Ethereum 2. The idea is to put only the minimum necessary apparatus into the Ethereum 2. This is one reason why features like identity and privacy are not baked into the protocol. Longevity To select all components such that they are either quantum secure or can be easily swapped out for quantum secure counterparts when available. Some elements of the Ethereum 2. Others, such as the signature aggregation using elliptic curve based BLS signatures, are known to be potentially vulnerable.
These exist in zero-knowledge form as ZK-STARKS useful for applications providing privacy , but are also useful as-is for efficiently proving that protocol actions have been correctly made, without the checker having to verify every detail of the action.
However, we need to be cautious. STARKs are very new, and still evolving. Work on their security properties is only just getting started. Conclusion Decentralisation, resilience, security, simplicity, longevity — these are the principles underlying the design of Ethereum 2.
The aim of the ballot blockchain system is to achieve a fair, less time-consuming, secured, and transparent environment. Article Preview Top Introduction Information technology, including sensors, radio frequency identification RFID , infrared, the Internet of Things IoT , automation mechanisms, geographic information systems GIS , identification systems, and so on, are based on a high-density internet infrastructure and are adopted in various industries to raise productivity and efficiency and reduce costs and human resources.
Although considerable information technology has been adopted, such as communications, the internet, data-processing methods, automation, and so on, technology is still upgraded and advanced. Applications are increasingly developed under existing information technology using adaptive processing mechanisms, especially for internet security and data privacy, to build a safer internet environment and suitable services.
Blockchain was noticed because Nakamoto proposed electronic currency in Gartner is a major data analytics company, which presents the top 10 strategic technology trends for the next year during the fourth season of the year. Blockchain was listed from to , consecutively, which indicates its influence in data technology Gartner, Blockchain has been applied in many fields, including financial applications, food supply chain management, medical services, logistic business, and education.
The ballot is a fair decision technique that is held for various purposes, such as representative member voting between nations, presidential elections in countries, decision-making in businesses, and opinion voting in families. Presently, voting is usually held in a traditional way, which includes attending the specified place in person and then receiving and casting a paper ballot.
This method seems open and fair but has a higher cost on front-end works, including human and paper resources, and it is time-consuming and causes some unexpected chaos. Therefore, some businesses operate online voting using internet providers or communication applications, where the ballot environment is built based on internet-connected devices and a related application installation.
Unlike traditional elections, online elections could be achieved without limitations of time and places. However, some privacy and internet security issues may be concerned; therefore, blockchain technologies are used to remedy them in this research.
In which, there are some challenges of implementing ballot blockchain should be considered including the verification procedures of voters, the programming rules of the smart contract, and the policy making of preventing the vote cheating.
Aug 21, · A Systems Design Analysis of Ethereum On July 30, Vitalik Buterin, a cryptography researcher, published the Ethereum White Paper. The Ethereum White Paper . The world's first Ethereum OS. A mobile operating system built to be crypto native. Install ethOS Read whitepaper. Native dApps. 0% Platform Fees. Crypto Widgets. If you’re looking to . 1. Inspirational The site should inspire users to dream of how Ethereum can change the world. I 2. Universal Ethereum is a global, decentralized project and our audience reflects thi See more.