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This keeps you from having a life outside the workplace. You end up finding that you do not even have time for your family. Self-employment allows you to create and manage your own work schedule. You choose what to do and what can wait. This offers you more flexibility.

You get to spend more time with your kids. You get to attend more family gatherings and you get to hang out with your friends. Choosing your clients becomes possible When you are employed, you have to deal with the company clients assigned to you by your employer irrespective of whether you get along with those clients or not.

You simply do not have a choice. You have to serve them otherwise you will get fired. In some instances, your employer will have you deal with unsatisfied customers or clients. This will burden you more. Dissatisfied customers often give you additional responsibilities which are actually out of your scope. When you are self- employed, you deal with the clients you want to deal with.

If a client is not satisfied with your services, you can end your contract with the client without losing your job. You leave the uniform behind Sure, people who work in the corporate world do look sharp in their ties and business suits. Being self-employed allows you to work in whatever you feel like working in. You can work in anything you find comfortable without risking not getting a paycheck at the end of the month because you did not stick to the formal dress code.

You have to incur travel expenses to and from work and if you own a car, it will need gas. Also, health insurance has to be deducted from your salary. No one will force you to pay health insurance if you are your own boss. All this means fewer expenses. When it comes to earning, you determine how much you want to earn.

You set your rates and find clients who are willing to pay you the money you want. When working for someone else, getting a salary raise is tough. You are limited to only earning what the company pays people in your position. If this is the case, it would be safe to assume that you are not really productive at work. Chances are, you spend your days trying to figure out how workdays can be made shorter so that you can leave your office sooner.

When you are working for yourself, you choose what you like doing as your profession. As a self-employed individual, you will get to accomplish much more when compared to when you are working for someone else. This will include water systems or latrines, for example, but not the defensive aspects of the building. Likewise, in the case of mon- 3 4 Niermeyer and Van de Kieft, vol. Barley, , p. A: Occident Meets Orient The Franks did not develop their domestic culture out of thin air and to be able to understand it we must examine its sources.

In this study I will attempt to answer a number of questions regarding the nature of Frankish settlement in the Levant from the aspect of traditions, adaptations and innovations in the daily life of the Frankish settlers.

A number of scholars have attempted to deal with this issue. In the matter of material culture, the influence of the East can be seen in the domestic architecture of the Franks and in most objects connected to the activities of daily life—clothing, food, metal and ceramic vessels and coins, to name just a few. They adopted Eastern building technologies and used them alongside Western ones.

They introduced into their society Eastern types of household equipment such as ceramics and high-quality glass and metal vessels. B: Misconceptions and Generalizations In comparison with the impressive number of publications discussing the monumental architecture of the Crusader period and the extensive research that has been carried out on the domestic architecture of medieval Europe, remarkably few attempts have been made to describe 5 See for example V.

Goss and C. Bornstein, eds. Consequently they are full of generalizations, inaccuracies and occasionally, outright errors. Descriptions of Frankish houses by Joshua Prawer are not much better. Most of the important publications on castles, churches and monasteries appear in the comprehensive bibliographies in H. Kennedy, Crusader Castles, Cambridge and D. Pringle, Churches in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, vols.

Hazard, ed. Setton, gen. The technological, artistic and human advantages of the Orient were so great that only irrational fanatics could have resisted them. There is an element of truth in such statement. It is certainly the case that housing in some towns was often simply reoccupied housing from the Fatimid and earlier periods.

For example, houses excavated in the coastal town of Caesarea were occupied by settlers after the Crusader army occupied the city in and were in use, with certain changes and reconstruction, throughout the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. See below, pp. In a similar description on Caesarea he noted that the occupiers killed the house owners and seized their properties.

WT Not that these sources are not of value, but one must be careful not to relate to them as reliable factual accounts. At every street corner there stood an exceeding strong tower fenced with an iron door and iron chains. All the nobles dwelt in very strong castles and palaces along the outer edge of the city. In the midst of the city dwelt the 14 6 introduction with various vicissitudes, for close on two centuries and during that time must have built many new houses. The oriental type, closed to the outside street and with its main rooms opening on to a central courtyard, containing a cistern to catch the rain from the roofs, is attested by written sources in Jerusalem, and excavated examples at Caesarea.

The latter were apparently built in the eleventh century, but were extended and kept in use by the Frankish newcomers in the twelfth. Examples are recorded in Jerusalem, Acre, Caesarea and Nablus. The present study aims at fulfilling this need. While it may be that this account relied on an earlier one, the fact that Ludolf was writing long after the destruction of Acre also raises the possibility that it was based on very dated hearsay and imagination.

Riley-Smith, ed. Excavations carried out by R. Macalister and J. Duncan in —25 and published in uncovered the fragmentary remains of a courtyard house. It was identified as dating to the Crusader period on the basis of the discovery of ashlars displaying the typically Frankish diagonal tooling.

In —61 Kesten carried out the above-mentioned survey of Frankish period buildings within the Turkish walls of the coastal city of Acre. He subsequently published a report describing Frankish structures, most of them of a domestic nature. Kesten published a map of the 21 On this and other Frankish techniques see C. Deschamps, Le Crac des Chevaliers, text and album, Paris, , pp. Such a division is in some cases justified in that there is a certain correlation between the name of the quarter and the type of domestic architecture found in it.

At the same time I carried out similar surveys at Akhziv, Caesarea and Jerusalem, as well as in a number of rural sites. See A. Kesten, The Old City of Acre. Re-examination and Conclusions, , Akko, Alef ed. Negev in the coastal town of Caesarea uncovered a group of courtyard houses alongside the eastern city wall Figure 2, Plan C and Figure 3. Prausnitz in —64 at Ahziv on the coast north of Acre uncovered some buildings of the Frankish period that were probably private residences.

Stern ed. A broader discussion is found in A. Avissar, , pp. Roll and O. Tall, Apollonia-Arsuf. Final Report of the Excavations, vol. I, Tel Aviv, , pp. Onn and Y. Houses against the eastern city wall of Caesarea photograph by author. In two additional houses were exposed in excavations at this site. An exception is Cyprus, where a number of Frankish houses have survived in rather fine condition in the town of Nicosia although many of these date to the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and some fragmentary remains survive also in Famagusta.

These were discussed by C. Enlart in his monumental publication on Gothic and Renaissance art in Cyprus, first published in Nothing is known of Frankish houses in Edessa, and the 40 A. Boas, and Y. See also Boas, , pp. The final report is in preparation. Note in particular pages —, —14, — Evidence from this and other surveys suggests the existence of a network of rural settlements dating to the Frankish period. Ciggaart and M.

Metcalf, eds. Consequently, to understand the nature of the houses they built we should first have an idea of the appearance of contemporary houses in the West, in the Byzantine Empire and in the Levant, the materials and methods employed in their construction, their overall design and the types of rooms, installations and furnishings they contained. In Jerusalem the majority of the population probably came from France but there were settlers and pilgrims from Spain, Germany, Hungary and many other parts of Europe.

VII, fol. There was also a tower on the eastern defences known as the English Tower Turris Anglorum. In Europe, with its great cultural diversity, many different types of houses were constructed employing a number of different designs and materials and a variety of decorative elements. From region to region throughout the West, houses differed considerably, and this makes it difficult to draw up a set of criteria with which to make comparisons with the houses of the Latin East.

Nevertheless, certain basic types of houses appear in the many regions from which the settlers came, and I shall deal here with those most relevant for comparison—houses on burgage plots, merchant houses, tower houses, hall houses and courtyard houses. Urban Houses Most of the houses found in towns fall into one of five categories: houses on narrow burgage plots, merchant palaces, tower houses, courtyard houses and hall houses.

Many of the houses in the heart of a town had shops facing the street and the street frontage was an important element of their design. The need of many urban dwellers to possess access to a street, not a mere lane or cul-de-sac as was often the case with houses in Near Eastern towns, resulted in the typical aspect of European urban dwellings.

The importance of the shop and its access is reflected in the regulations passed in some places to prevent the blocking of communal entry. In general the rights of access were carefully defined. See Prawer, , pp. In Italy the height of these houses was often about 8 m. In simple houses the upper storey might have loopholes rather than windows. There were often no more than two rooms on each level. An elegant Roman residence in had a room with a brick fireplace caminata above and below, a staircase in front and a porch and garden.

In southern Italy houses had courtyards, balconies and communicating roofs, and while some of them had wells others even had piped water. See R. Krautheimer, Rome. Profile of a City, —, Princeton, N. This type of dwelling was at once luxurious living quarters, a place for the storage of goods and a symbol of the wealth and importance of its owner.

They are typical of the great Italian maritime cities and are found also in the towns of France, Germany and elsewhere. It is often assumed that these towers stood alone, but this was rarely the case; in general they were constructed in clusters or constituted part of a mansion or palace and the terms turris and domus frequently appear together in contemporary references. This courtyard design was maintained in Italy, Spain and southern France, although the large courtyard houses and mansions with enclosed courtyards of the medieval period had little in common with the ancient ones.

It provides the best possible protection against a harsh climate and against marauders and thieves. But the principal reason for its popularity in the Muslim East—the provision of privacy to the family members—was perhaps less of a factor in European Christian society. In England for example the great majority of medieval houses comprised a hall with a service room or rooms at one end.

The hall was the central feature of these houses, covering the whole or a large portion of either the ground or upper floor. The kitchen and sleeping quarters were usually located at one end occasionally at either end or were located in separate wings. Heating in these halls was often by means of an open hearth in the centre of the floor, with an opening in the roof for ventilation.

A typical village house was of one or two storeys at most; many were of only one storey and occasionally of only one room. Village houses in England excavated at Seacourt in Oxfordshire and Wharram Percy in Yorkshire had internal dimensions of c. Even the few larger houses in these settlements were exceedingly small. The room or rooms were usually open to the roof. They had a central hearth but no chimney and sometimes no opening in the roof, which means they would have been smoke-filled.

People sometimes slept in the kitchen or in the surrounding rooms for warmth. Le Roy Ladurie, , p. The influence of Byzantine military architecture on Frankish castles is an issue that has long been debated. Evidence suggests that there were at least specific elements of Byzantine daily life and domestic elements that the Franks adopted. The use by the Franks of fireplaces and wall chimneys is a possible example of such an influence. Medieval domestic buildings have been excavated in a number of sites in areas that were under Byzantine rule and after the Fourth Crusade came under Frankish rule.

Medieval houses have been excavated at Athens and Corinth. A house excavated in the southern part of the central 16 See E. Ithaca, , p. Lawrence, Crusader Castles, Oxford, , pp. Kennedy, Crusader Castles, Cambridge, , pp. For a recent discussion of this debate over influences see R.

Setton describes these as simple structures with rubble walls overlaid with sun-baked brick, and floors of packed earth. They measured 8 by 16 m. There were double doors and channels to dispose of sewage. See K. On Corinth see Scanlon, , pp. Williams, II and O. One room measuring 5 by 6 m. On the east side of the courtyard a door gave access to a small room through which the main room of the complex was entered. The roof of this room, which occupied the north-east portion of the building, was supported slightly east of its centre by a transverse arch.

Another twelfth-century house excavated to the north-west had a large central courtyard, two long halls north and south, and smaller rooms on the other two sides. A number of houses excavated in Pergamon which did not come under Latin rule but was part of the Empire of Nicaea after have been dated to between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries.

One house with an upper storey had a staircase in the courtyard. Each house had separate areas for work, storage, living and sleeping. Several of the houses had a hearth built into a wall of the kitchen. Some had chimneys. The roofs, constructed of wooden beams and slats, were sloping and tiled. Floors in the houses in Athens were usually made of packed earth.

Heating in private houses was sometimes by means of fireplaces and wall chimneys; Pergamon has examples of these dating to the thirteenth century. Alternatively, in Thebes wells were uncommon because there was an abundant supply of natural water which was stored in large plastered pithoi built under the ground floor.

Rheidt, , pp. See Iraq 37 , Plate 4b. On the topic of chimneys and fireplaces see discussion below, pp. Edbury and S. Kalopissi-Verti, eds. However, this uniformity coexists with a remarkable diversity of building materials and decoration, and on the surface it may appear that there is little common ground between houses from the different areas of the Muslim world. Nevertheless, the basic elements of Islamic house design are found throughout. Muslim Houses in Excavations Excavations in the mercantile city of Siraf on the east coast of the Persian Gulf have revealed a wealthy suburb of the ninth and tenth centuries.

The outer walls are buttressed every 2. Each house was different from its neighbours but all had a central paved courtyard with one or more entrances from which rooms could be entered. The rooms had plaster floors and elaborate stucco decoration. Windows were scarce—in spite of the preservation of outer walls up to the height of 3. Natural light would have entered these rooms only through the doors into the courtyard. Although the houses were richly embellished and clearly belonged to wealthy merchants, they lacked piped water and only two were found to have wells.

There were no latrines at least on the ground floor , nor was there a sewage system. Excavations have shown that the houses of Fustat, Egypt dating to the Tulinid dynasty — had a central courtyard entered at one of its corners. On all four sides was an iwan, some deep, others shallow. These 24 Whitehouse, , pp. See also D. They had a system of conduits carrying fresh water and disposing of sewage. The courtyards were decorated with plants and in some cases had fountains and pools. Many of these houses were of five or six storeys.

They contained little in the way of furniture. In Jerusalem a tenth-eleventh century house was excavated and published in a very brief description. The 26 G. Russell, , p. Bahgat and A. On the domestic architecture see also A. More recent excavations were published by Scanlon and Kubiak between and See G.

Kubiak and G. Ben-Dov, In the Shadow of the Temple. The Discovery of Ancient Jerusalem, Jerusalem, , pp. The doors of the rooms faced the courtyard but there was also access directly from the street into one of the rooms. The roof area would have been reached by a ladder. Abbasid-period houses excavated in Tiberias Ganney Hammat in had two storeys and enclosed partly roofed courtyards.

There were covered drains. The kitchen in one of the houses had a stone shelf and there were tabuns small clay ovens. A row of pillars supported the roof in the courtyard of one of the houses. The roof was probably flat. Stairs gave access to the upper-storey. One complex in Tiberias originally consisted of two facing two-room dwellings each with its own courtyard. The rooms averaged at 2 by 4 m.

The house was constructed directly on the collapsed buildings destroyed in the CE earthquake and the walls contain several architectural fragments in secondary use. In a second phase, in the Ayyubid-Mamluk period, the courtyard was lengthened to the east and the rooms on either side were unified by the removal of some walls and the addition of others. In the western quarter of Korazim, north of the Sea of Galilee, a number of houses dating to the Frankish period were excavated in the early s.

It was constructed of fieldstone walls preserved to the height of 2. The entrance was to the west through an arched gateway. Each wall had two narrow windows 15 cm wide by 40 cm high. Onn, personal communication. Foerster and Y. Muslim Houses in the Geniza Documents Together with information from excavations, the Cairo Geniza is a source of great value. Goitein places emphasis on the family house built around a central courtyard. The entrance to a typical courtyard house was via an arched gateway in the larger houses or a gate with a doubleleaved door.

Doors were of wood as were the locks. It could contain a built-in bench mastaba. Courtyards could be quite large and planted with a garden, or small; and they were not always open to the sky. Fatimid and Ayyubid houses consisted of one or several large rooms connected to several small chambers. The iwan, or liwan, is not represented in the Geniza in pre-Mamluk Egyptian houses although, as noted, certain Tulinid period houses in Fustat had prominent iwans.

The documents frequently mention staircases on stone arches. Roofs were usually flat. Sometimes there were stables or storerooms. They have been discussed in the numerous erudite papers of S. Goitein and others and in the comprehensive work: S.

Goitein, The Mediterranean Society, 6 vols. The door of the Islamic house might be considered to be a smaller version of the city gate with which it shared certain features. It was generally designed to give only indirect access to the courtyard in order to restrict unauthorised entry.

Windows tended to be small, often located quite high in the walls and invariably placed in such a manner that there was no direct view from the windows of the house opposite. The roof was in most cases flat and was used as a work area and also for sleeping on hot summer nights. However, in regions of high rainfall, as in the West, sloping roofs were employed. Decoration on house exteriors was limited, although doors and windows were occasionally treated in a decorative manner.

A loggia where one could sit and observe passers-by was sometimes located above the entrance to the house. The courtyard was the heart of the traditional Islamic house. The house was oriented away from the street to the central courtyard, and access to the rooms around it was only from the courtyard. This ensured privacy, in particular for the women of the household, which was a central requirement of Islam.

For the same reason, house doors on opposite sides of a street may not face each other. The shape of a house, the materials used in its construction and even the manner in which it is deco- 41 von Grunebaum, , p. Today a widely available diversity of building materials has brought imitation Spanish houses, neo-Tudor cottages and a variety of other cultural styles to the suburbs of many Western cities.

Yet there is still in each locality a certain degree of uniformity in housing which, even if less obvious than in the past and less tied to past traditions, is evidence of local patterns of living and tastes that cannot be entirely suppressed. More than a reflection of the immediate environment, these traditions are a record of the historical development of a people. This is particularly true of the Islamic world.

Whatever the immediate surroundings—north African coast, Arabian desert, Syrian steppe lands—we can always determine in the courtyard house the elements of an architecture that goes back to the earliest days of Islam, to the southern Arabian landscape and climate and to the lifestyle set out in the teachings of the Prophet.

The house built by Mohammad for himself and his family on his arrival in Medina was intended both as a dwelling and as a meeting place for his followers. It had as its central feature a courtyard surrounded by walls. On one of these walls a shelter from the sun was constructed for the convenience of the faithful at prayer. According to tradition the courtyard was entered via a porch of palm branches that could be blocked with camel-hair curtains.

Two basic courtyard house types are found in Islam: a the courtyard-attached house where the courtyard borders the house providing a protected area contiguous with the house but not enclosed except by walls; b the central courtyard house where the house encloses a courtyard on all sides. The old village architecture that blended so well into the landscape has all but disappeared.

Anyone travelling through the Galilee, the West Bank or elsewhere in the region is struck by the modern houses springing up around the cores of the old villages, the stone lined concrete constructions, with gabled, sometimes pagoda-shaped roofs. They retain little if anything of the tradition of the Palestinian village house although even they have amongst themselves developed a unity of sorts.

The courtyard provided protection from the sun and wind, important in the hot and arid climate typical of a large part of the Arab world. It also served as a light well to the rooms around it which, as noted, had few or no windows on their outer walls. In many Arab houses the courtyard served as a protected work area.

In others this function was taken over by a flat spacious roof area. The courtyard provided for the members of the household, particularly the women, an open area in which they could lead something of an outdoor life in complete privacy.

The courtyard was an integral part of these houses and unlike houses sharing a communal courtyard, it was a distinctly private feature. In Samarra courtyard houses were often very large, sometimes containing as many as 50 rooms. They were all built on a similar plan: a covered passage led from the street or lane into a regular court surrounded by small living rooms and offices, with a T-shaped main room and two corner rooms on the narrower side.

It may be that these groupings on opposite sides of the courtyard were summer and winter dwellings. There were also rectangular dwellings and store rooms around the courtyard and often additional small courts and store rooms. Some of the houses had an open pillared hall and a ventilated underground 44 G. Mitchell ed. There were baths and a drainage system and occasionally wells.

However, there was also the bustan—a vegetable and fruit garden not at the centre of the house but generally separated from it and outside the town walls. Cisterns were an essential feature in the towns and villages in the Near East and although smaller houses might use a public water supply most houses, even the simplest village houses, generally had a water cistern.

The two prevalent types were bell-shaped rock-cut cisterns and constructed barrel vaults. Both types were fed by pipes and channels carrying water collected on the roof and in the courtyards and conveyed to a sump-shaft or settling tank and from there via a pipe to the adjacent cistern. In Fustat water for cleaning and cooking was collected and carried by a separate system from water for drinking purposes.

At Siraf pipes apparently carried rainwater from the roofs to cisterns and others carried sewage from upstairs latrines into pits that were excavated in neighbouring alleyways at the foot of the walls. Ahsan, , pp. Goitein, , pp. Scanlon, , p. See D. Whitehouse, , p. The poor in rural areas used bushes and open fields but the wealthy built their privies at considerable expense. For example, a latrine built by a wealthy merchant of Baghdad had gypsum plaster on the top with mortar at the bottom.

The roof was flat and the floor had marble paving. The door had slats made of alternating teak and ivory. They had a stone slab serving as a seat over a pit. The traditional Arab house had little in the way of large-scale movable furniture such as tables, chairs, beds and cupboards. Chairs were found only in the houses of the wealthy. Otherwise there were stone and mortar-built benches. Cupboards were recesses in the walls with wooden doors. Open niches built in the walls, often decorated, were and still are a characteristic feature of domestic architecture throughout the Islamic world.

A wide range of construction materials was used throughout the different regions of the Islamic world, varying from rammed earth and clay to sun-baked brick, kiln-fired brick, wood, rubble, gypsum plaster and stone. Mosaic and marble are found in the houses of the wealthy. Mud-brick was sometimes covered with stucco. Tiles were also occasionally employed in private houses. Good quality building stone was abundantly available in many regions.

The profession of mason was a complex one, there being mason specialists for different needs: simple quarry men to cut the stone in the quarry, on-site specialists to cut the freed stone, masons to prepare roughly shaped stones for interior walls and foundations, experts to 53 Ahsan, , p. The Muslim Rural House The principal distinction between urban and rural dwellings in the East is the location of the courtyard. Whereas the typical urban house is designed around a central courtyard the village house is more often attached to a courtyard with high enclosure walls.

The lower value of rural land allowed for less rigidity in design. Consequently there is great variety in the design of rural houses throughout the Muslim world. In Afghan villages houses are domed mud-brick structures grouped around courtyards. Houses in Iran and Iraq are also often built of mud bricks. In central Africa nomadic dwellings consist of woven reed structures within a walled enclosure.

In Syria-Palestine, except for the Bedouin, the use of stone replaced the hides and cloth of nomadic structures as soon as settlements became permanent but the layout of the permanent dwelling was basically the same as that of the nomadic dwelling—with sheltered quarters on one or two sides of a walled-in yard. This type of house is found for example at Khirbat Abu Suwwana. The site consists of clusters of small houses built around communal courtyards.

They have little in common with the traditional Palestinian rural dwelling discussed below but were a type of house appropriate to the early post-nomadic sedentary stage of settlement. The main features of these rooms are living-sleeping rooms, workrooms, storage rooms and separate ovens. The walls were constructed of ashlars some in secondary use and fieldstones. Floors were cut in the bedrock. These were very simple one-storey dwellings, only one stage advanced from tent settlements.

Stairs in one courtyard apparently led to a roof. Only one room had plastered walls. A farm of Umayyad date at Nahal Mitnan, 30 km. They were manufactured and laid by a single man using mud mortar made from clay found at or close to the building site. Baked bricks were made from a better quality of clay mixed with sand and fired for three days.

A gypsum or lime-sand mortar was used to lay them. Gypsum was used to plaster walls, and lime to waterproof roofs, canals, drains and cisterns. It measures 15 by 33 m. Floors are of beaten earth, crushed limestone and ash. Raised platforms may have served as beds. Remnants of wood in the building suggest that the roof construction incorporated timber beams.

The farm was composed of separate dwelling units, each containing one to three rooms and a separate courtyard. It appears to have developed over a long period in a manner that made it remarkably appropriate to local conditions and to the requirements of the Palestinian Arab society.

It owed more to the ancient domestic buildings of the Holy Land than to the domestic architecture of other Muslim countries. Rabbinic texts of the Roman-Byzantine period are a valuable source for comparison as they present a remarkably detailed picture of daily life and of the house.

See Y. Hirschfeld, , pp. See Canaan, , p. The door served as the principal and sometimes the only source of light, and windows were added only if the living space was on a higher level than that of the door. The walls were massively constructed, at least one metre thick, using dressed stones with a mortar and rubble fill debesh. Their thickness provided insulation and allowed the height of the room to be raised considerably, thereby permitting the construction of the mastaba.

Niches in the walls were used for cupboards. The interior face of the walls was plastered. Roofing was of timber beams supporting branches or reeds covered with a thick layer of plaster or mud-mortar. These houses often huddled together, the roofs of some houses serving as terraces in front of other houses. In larger houses wooden columns were used to support the ceiling, or a wooden central beam or stone arch gave additional support and allowed an increased area to be covered.

The use of groin vaulting was typical but possibly introduced after the Frankish period. It is not clear when this distinctive type of house first developed but there is perhaps evidence for it existing in the Frankish period. The thirteenth-century text known as the so-called Templar of Tyre describes how a Catalan knight named Cordate who was held in captivity in a house located in a casale below Safed escaped from captivity by lowering himself from a window to a terrace below.

It was a low structure come maison de villain. The window of the room where Cordate was held captive had a wooden beam across it and using the beam he lowered himself down to a terrace made of earth. The plaster or mud-mortar roofing of Palestinian village houses often contained grass seeds which would germinate in the winter, and perhaps what is referred to here as a terrace made of earth was a roof at a lower level.

The house thus appears to have been of a type still to be seen today, although fast disappearing, in Palestinian villages such as Deir Samit, south of Hebron. Crawford trans.

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