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In this case, the table must be horizontally scrolled left to right to view all of the information. Reporting firms send Tuesday open interest data on Wednesday morning. Market Data powered by Barchart Solutions. Https:// Rights Reserved. Volume: The total number of shares or contracts traded in the current trading session. You can re-sort the page by clicking on any of the column headings in the table.

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Ethereum ldb files

It's cross platform, tiny and fast, but not many developers are familiar with it and it has a funky license. Android, GTK, iThingy? The answer is all of them! The perfect UI depends on what you want to use it for, and we don't want to make that choice for you, rather allow you to run Clef the way it fits best into your life: If you are on the move all the time, you may prefer an Android or iOS interface.

If you have a powerful laptop, the beauty of Electron might be just the thing. If you have an offline signer machine, a Qt UI might be simple, but enough. If you are a bank, you might want a custom integration into your own infra. We can't implement all this. But you can! We've designed Clef with enough flexibility to allow anyone to implement a custom UI on top, without needing to touch Clef itself, or know any Go at all.

The goal is to provide a building block to the community so that designers and UI developers can do what they're good at, without having to worry about cryptography and stuff. Any user interface is meant to start itself up and internally start an instance of Clef, binding to it's IO streams. Clef itself ships with a built in CLI interface otherwise it's not much useful and we've prepared an entire Quickstart Guide to familiarize yourself with the general features and concepts.

There are also various proof-of-concept UIs that we've used to validate architectural decisions, but to get a solid UI, we need the community, as we don't have the knowledge ourselves! Integrated 4bytes You probably figured out the general direction by now.

We want Clef to be a reusable piece of puzzle. The trick is to make it the right size! Too much functionality baked in e. Too few e. It's a delicate balance of maximizing utility and security without compromising flexibility. What else do wallet implementations reinvent all the time? In Ethereum, whenever a user interacts with a contract, they send a giant blob of binary data, encoded in a very specific ABI format. This is needed so that the EVM can make heads or tails of it, and of course this is generated by some program e.

Problem is, the user is then prompted to confirm a transaction that looks like this: The solution of the Ethereum community was to assemble a 4byte database, so that by looking at the first 4 bytes of the above data, you can guess what the rest of the data is meant to represent, and can thus show the user a meaningful dump of what they are about to confirm images above and below courtesy of Etherscan.

Currently all Ethereum wallet UIs reinvent the wheel when it comes to integrating 4bytes! The database is public, but the integrations are custom. Clef ships the entire 4byte database embedded in itself, and whenever a transaction is made, it decodes the calldata internally. Not only does Clef send the decoded call to the UI, but also adds warning messages if the data does not match the method signature!

Clef will handle Ethereum, you can focus on the UI! Programmatic rules Clef seems awesome, what more could we ask for? What happens, however, if we want to automate some of that e. Clique signer, Raiden relay, Swarm exchange, etc. We could just not care and let the UI sort it out Clef solves this via an encrypted key-value store and an ingenious rule engine!

Instead of prompting the user to confirm each and every request via a passphrase entry, we can permit Clef to sign on our behalf by storing our passphrase in its encrypted database. This will only allow passwordless signing, but still needs manual confirmation!

As a second step, however, we can also provide Clef with a JavaScript rule file , that will run whenever a request arrives and can decide to auto-confirm, auto-reject, or forward the request for manual confirmation. The JavaScript rules have access to the entire request and can also store arbitrary data in a key-value store for persistence.

The programmable rules ensure that Clef remains true to its composability promise, permitting anyone to build their dream integration on top. For a full demo on how to set up automatic rules, please check the Clef Quickstart Guide. Light clients Light clients are tricky and they make everything more complicated than it should be. The root cause is more philosophical than technical: the best things in life are free, and the second best are cheap.

In Ethereum client terms, the "best" clients are those that work with 0 overhead think Metamask, Infura , the second best are the light clients. Problem is, trusted servers go against the ethos of the project, but light clients are often too heavy for resource constrained devices ethash murders your phone battery. This mode aims to position itself midway on the security spectrum between a trusted server and a light server, replacing PoW verification with digital signatures from a majority of trusted servers.

With enough signatures from independent entities, you could achieve more than enough security for non-critical DApps. That said, ultra light client mode is not really meant for your average node, rather for projects wishing to ship Geth embedded into their own process. This work was spearheaded by Boris Petrov and Status. Checkpoint oracle Light clients are dirty little cheats! Instead of downloading and verifying each header from the genesis to chain head, they use a hard coded checkpoint shipped within Geth as a starting point.

Of course, this checkpoint contains all the necessary infos to cryptographically verify even past headers, so security wise nothing is lost. Still, as useful as the embedded checkpoints are, they do have their shortcomings: As the checkpoints are hard coded into our release binaries, older releases will always start syncing from an older block. This is fine for a few months, but eventually it gets annoying. You can, of course, update Geth to fetch a new checkpoint, but that also pulls in all our behavioral changes, which you may not want to do for whatever reason.

Since these checkpoints are embedded into the code, you're out of luck if you want to support them in your own private network. You'd need to either ship a modified Geth, or configure the checkpoints via a config file, distributing a new one whenever you update the checkpoint. Doable, but not really practical long term. Instead of relying on hard-coded checkpoints, light clients can reach out to untrusted remote light servers peer-to-peer, no centralized bs and ask them to return an updated checkpoint stored within an on-chain smart contract.

The best part, light clients can cryptographically prove that the returned data was signed by a required number of approved signers! Wait, how does a light client know who's authorized to sign an on-chain checkpoint? For networks supported out of the box, Geth ships with hard coded checkpoint oracle addresses and lists of authorized signers so you're trusting the same devs who ship Geth itself. For private networks, the oracle details can be specified via a config file. Although the old and new checkpoint mechanisms look similar both require hard-coded data in Geth or a config file , the new checkpoint oracle needs to be configured only once and afterwards can be used arbitrarily long to publish new checkpoints.

Our checkpoint oracle contract is an especially nasty beast, because a it goes out of its way to retain security even in the face of chain reorgs; and b it needs to support sharing and proving checkpoints to not-yet-synced clients. As we don't expect anyone not even ourselves to manually interact with the checkpoint oracle, Geth v1.

Note, you'll only ever need to care about this if you want to run your own checkpoint oracle for your own private network. Furthermore, checkpoint-admin also works in offline mode without a live chain to provide data and can also be backed by clef for signing instead of using key files, but describing all these is for another day. Monitoring This is perhaps something that not many knew about, but since pretty much forever, Geth had built in support for monitoring different subsystems and events.

We can do better than this! Metrics collection First thing's first, metrics need to be gathered before they can be exported and visualized. Geth can be instructed to collect all its known metrics via the --metrics CLI flag. To expose these measurements to the outside world, Geth v1. Geth uses its debug pprof endpoint to expose these on. Please note, you should never expose the pprof HTTP endpoint to the public internet as it can be used to trigger resource intensive operations!

ExpVars are well-ish supported within the Go ecosystem, but are not the industry standard. A similar mechanism, but with a more standardized format, is the Prometheus endpoint. Again, please never expose the pprof HTTP endpoint to the public internet! Shoutout to Maxim Krasilnikov for contributing this feature. Whereas ExpVars and Prometheus are pull based monitoring mechanisms remote servers pull the data from Geth , we also support push based monitoring via InfluxDB Geth pushes the data to remote servers.

This feature requires a number of CLI flags to be set to configure the database connection server, database, username, password and Geth instance tag. This work was done by Anton Evangelatov. We ourselves are using Datadog internally and have been contiguously tweaking our monitoring dashboards ever since we created them 1.

If you are already using Datadog or are considering to do so, here's a teaser of what you can assemble based on the metrics exposed by Geth this is the dashboard through which we compare PRs against master : Unfortunately Datadog does not support sharing dashboards with external entities since they depend on how the monitored machines have been configured.

As such, we can't easily share the above work with you, but we did export a JSON dump of it in case anyone's willing to follow in our footsteps! Of course, we also understand that a paid service such as Datadog is not always ideal, especially if you are just starting out and don't have money to burn on monitoring. A brilliant free monitoring tool is Grafana!

Maxim Krasilnikov made a Grafana dashboard a while ago against an older development version of Geth. We took his awesome work and merged into it the stats that we ourselves grew fond of in Datadog, resulting in quite a bit of extra work on Geth. Alternatively, you can view my testing snapshot on Raintank, or import this dashboard into your own Grafana instance Puppeth explorer A long time ago in a far away land, Puppeth saw the first light of day specifically, in Mexico, just shy of two years ago.

If you haven't head about it, "Puppeth is a tool to aid you in creating a new Ethereum network down to the genesis block, bootnodes, signers, ethstats, faucet, wallet, explorer and dashboard". Originally it was created to support deploying and maintaining the Rinkeby testnet, but has since been used by various groups for other private networks too. Puppeth is not a tool for maintaining a high value production network, but it has, nonetheless, proven itself robust enough to keep Rinkeby relevant for over two years now!

If you'd like a deeper dive into Puppeth, here's my reveal talk from way back. In this post however lets focus on what's new! Puppeth is awesome! It allowed you since day 1 to deploy a full, operational Ethereum network across multiple machines, extended with a stats page to aid maintenance, along with a faucet and a dashboard to help onboard users easily. Puppeth, however, lacked a robust block explorer, since the only contenders back then were Etherscan and Etherchain , both closed source.

We did hack something in, but it was kind of meh With the announcement of Blockscout late last year, everything changed! The Ethereum community finally got a real, open source block explorer, courtesy of the POA Network team. Compared to the established players, Blockscout of course has some catching up to do, but that does not stop us from realizing that it is already an insanely valuable asset. This effort was pioneered by Gary Rong, but a huge shoutout goes to Ayrat Badykov too for his help in sorting out issues, questions and whatnot.

Please note, that we expect the initial integration to be rough e. By all means test it, run it, report any issues, but don't be surprised if it goes down at 3AM! Discovery protocol Now here's another piece of legacy infrastructure! To make sure you get the most recent snapshot available and warp sync very close to the top of the chain, OpenEthereum supports the flag --warp-barrier [NUM].

Example: if latest block number is 5,, you should launch openethereum --warp-barrier Read more about Warp Sync. What are the OpenEthereum disk space needs and overall hardware requirements? Running a node with the standard configuration for the Ethereum Mainnet requires a lot of computer resources. Internet connection can also be a limiting factor. A decent DSL connection is required.

When running OpenEthereum using the command line, a lot of information is displayed in the terminal. Here is a description of these logs. Ancient: Best ancient block. Only visible if we warped.

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Is it too difficult to implement another database? Would it be too hard for example to "import" that goleveldb project to this project and "patch it" within this project to implement this change in physical layout of the files on disk? I would think it's just changing a few functions that handle file creating and access, nothing more.

But I really believe the performance on mechanical hard drives at least on Windows machines is affected in a significant enough measure that it would be worth making this change. Even with solid state drives, I think Windows suffers to a lesser degree when trying to work with so many files in a single folder.

Anything you can own can be represented, traded and put to use as non-fungible tokens NFTs. You can tokenise your art and get royalties automatically every time it's re-sold. Or use a token for something you own to take out a loan. The possibilities are growing all the time. More on NFTs An open internet Today, we gain access to 'free' internet services by giving up control of our personal data. Ethereum services are open by default — you just need a wallet.

These are free and easy to set up, controlled by you, and work without any personal info.

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Ethereum's Post Merge Miscalculation

12/18/ · Reduce number of files per folder; Ethereum likes to create tens of thousands of 2 MB LDB files in the chaindata folder. This can be a problem on NTFS file systems (Windows) . Ldb file ethereum dash mining cpy. Related Articles. Hope it helps. So what is the simplest, easiest and fastest way to migrate wallet from one computer to. How to change Monero wallet . 9/10/ · // The go-ethereum library is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify // it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by // the Free .